Alcohol and liver cancer
Liver cancer is a serious form of cancer that is directly linked to drinking alcohol.
What is liver cancer?
Primary liver cancer is a type of cancer which begins in the liver. It can be very serious, and unfortunately more people are dying from the disease, increasing more than three-fold in men and more than four-fold in women since the mid-1970s in the UK (1).
The exact cause of liver cancer is unknown but alcohol is a definite risk factor. Understanding these factors can help you reduce your own risk, and knowing what symptoms to look out for means you’ll know the right time to seek medical help.
Liver cancer & alcohol
Alcohol is not the only cause of liver cancer. The liver is responsible for processing the fat in the food you eat but an unhealthy diet can lead to a build-up of fat in the liver cells that can’t be broken down. This leads to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).
It’s estimated that 25-30% of people in the UK have an early form of NAFLD (2) and if the liver becomes inflamed the disease can quickly develop into something more serious.
Viral hepatitis is also a growing risk factor for liver disease particularly hepatitis B and C. This is because the swelling of the liver caused by hepatitis can lead to scarring which interrupts the liver’s repair processes.
If you’re worried about liver cancer, the British Liver Trust’s Health Screener is a useful tool for determining whether you’re at risk.
Liver cancer symptoms
Like many cancers, liver cancer is treatable if it’s caught early. If you experience any of the following symptoms you may be in the early stages of liver cancer and it’s best to visit a healthcare professional as soon as you can:
- Losing weight unexpectedly
- Having no appetite, and feeling full after even small meals
- Nausea and vomiting
- Stomach pain or swelling
- Jaundice (yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes)
- Fatigue; lack of energy (3)
Liver cancer prevention
The biggest change a person could make to their lives to reduce the risk of liver cancer would be to only drink within government unit guidelines. It’s also important to take days off from drinking which gives your liver the chance to repair itself. If you have cirrhosis of the liver medical advice is to stop drinking alcohol completely.
To make sure your liver is the healthiest it can be it’s also best to eat a balanced diet and get regular exercise. This will reduce your risk of fatty liver disease and protect you from other health problems such as heart attacks and strokes.
Finally, protect yourself from contracting viral hepatitis which can put you at greater risk from developing liver cancer by:
- Getting vaccinated before travelling abroad
- Always practising safe sex
- Avoiding sharing personal items such as razors or tweezers.
Get more information on alcohol and liver disease here.
1. Cancer Research UK website. Liver Cancer Statistics. Available at:http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/liver-cancer#heading-One
2. NHS Choices website. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Available at:http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/fatty-liver-disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx
3. NHS Choices website. Liver cancer. Available at:http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Cancer-of-the-liver/Pages/Introduction.aspx
Page updated: February 2016